Because the stressed word is “made”, “you” is weak, so the vowel becomes shorter and changes to /ə/. The sound /eɪ/ is simply the two sounds /e/ and /ɪ/ joined together without a break. Notice the glottal stop /ʔ/ at the end. A full /t/ sound would need too much stress, or effort on an unstressed word.
The phrase usually means “you got here (or there).” For example, you might say it to somebody who arrives at your party, if you weren’t sure they would come.